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Mold Machine

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Mold Machine --- Aheadmold

1.    Conventional Injection-Molding Machine
In this process, the plastic granules or pellets are poured into a machine hopper and fed into the chamber of the heating cylinder. A plunger then compresses the material, forcing it through progressively hotter zones of the heating cylinder, where it is spread thin by a torpedo. The torpedo is installed in the center of the cylinder in order to accelerate the heating of the center of the plastic mass. The torpedo may also be heated so that the plastic is heated from the inside as well as from the outside.
The material flows from the heating cylinder through a nozzle into the mold. The nozzle is the seal between the cylinder and the mold; it is used to prevent leaking of material caused by the pressure used. The mold is held shut by the clamp end of the machine. For polystyrene, two to three tons of pressure on the clamp end of the machine is generally used for each inch of projected area of the part and runner system. The conventional plunger machine is the only type of machine that can produce a mottle-colored part. The other types of injection machines mix the plastic material so thoroughly that only one color will be produced.

2.    Piston-Type Preplastifying Machine
This machine employs a torpedo ram heater to preplastify the plastic granules. After the melt stage, the fluid plastic is pushed into a holding chamber until it is ready to be forced into the die. This type of machine produces pieces faster than a conventional machine, because the molding chamber is filled to shot capacity during the cooling time of the part. Due to the fact that the injection plunger is acting on fluid material, no pressure loss is encountered in compacting the granules. This allows for larger parts with more projected area. The remaining features of a piston-type preplastifying machine are identical to the conventional single-plunger injection machine. Fig. 2-5 illustrates a piston or plunger preplastifying injection molding machine.
Fig. 2-5   The four basic types of injection molding equipment

3.    Screw-Type Preplastifying Machine
In this injection-molding machine, an extruder is used to plasticize the plastic material. The turning screw feeds the pellets forward to the heated interior surface of the extruder barrel. The molten, plasticized material moves from the extruder into a holding chamber, and from there is forced into the die by the injection plunger. The use of a screw gives the following advantages:
(1) better mixing and shear action of the plastic melt; (2) a broader range of stiffer flow and heatsensitive materials can be run; (3) color changes can be handled in a shorter time, and (4) fewer stresses are obtained in the molded part.

4.    Reciprocating-Screw Injection Machine
This type of injection molding machine employs a horizontal extruder in place of the heating chamber. The plastic material is moved forward through the extruder barrel by the rotation of a screw. As the material progresses through the heated barrel with the screw, it is changing from the granular condition to the plastic molten state. In the reciprocating screw, the heat delivered to the molding compound is caused by both friction and conduction between the screw and the walls of the barrel of the extruder. As the material moves forward, the screw backs up to a limit switch that determines the volume of material in the front of the extruder barrel. It is at this point that the re- semblance to a typical extruder ends. On the injection of the material into the die, the screw moves forward to displace the material in the barrel. In this machine, the screw performs as a ram as well as a screw. After the gate sections in the mold have frozen to prevent backflow, the screw begins to rotate and moves backward for the next cycle. Fig.2-5 shows a reciprocating-screw injection machine.
There are several advantages to this method of injection molding. It more efficiently plasticizes the heat-sensitive materials and blends colors more rapidly, due to the mixing action of the screw. The material heat is usually lower and the overall cycle time is shorter.

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