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Hammers

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Hammers --- Aheadmold

Hammers derive their energy from the potential energy of the ram, which is converted into kinetic energy (Fig. 4-12 (e)); thus they are energy limited. Unlike hydraulic presses, they operate at high speeds, and the resulting low forming time minimizes the cooling of a hot forging. Low cooling rates allow the forging of complex shapes, particularly those with thin and deep recesses. To complete the forging, several successive blows are usually made in the same die. Hammers are available in a variety of designs; they are the most versatile and the least expensive type of forging equipment.
1.    Gravity Drop Hammers
In the operation of this hammer, a process called drop forging, the energy is derived from the free-falling ram (the hammer shown in Fig. 4-12 (e) is known as a board hammer). The available energy of the hammer is the product of the ram’s weight and the height of its drop. Ram weighs range from 180 kg to 4500 kg, with energy capacities ranging up to 120 kJ.
2.    Power Drop Hammers
In this hammer, the ram’s downstroke is accelerated by steam, air, or hydraulic pressure at about 750 kPa. Ram weighs range from 225 kg to as much as 22,500 kg, with energy capacities ranging up to 1150 kJ.
3.    Counterblow Hammers
This hammer has two rams that simultaneously approach each other horizontally or vertically to forge the part. As in open-die forging operations, the part may be rotated between blows for proper shaping of the workpiece during forging. Counterblow hammers operate at high speeds and transmit less vibration to their bases. Capacities range up to 1200 kJ.
4.    High-Energy-Rate Machines
In a high-energy-rate machine, the ram is accelerated by inert gas at high pressure, and the part is forged in one blow at a very high speed. Although there are several types of these machines, various problems associated with their operation and maintenance, with die breakage,and with safety considerations have greatly limited their actual use in forging plants.

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