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Forging Machines

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Forging Machines --- Aheadmold

4.5    Forging Machines

A variety of forging machines are in use, with a range of capacities, speeds, and speed- stroke characteristics. These machines are generally classified as presses or hammers.


1.    Hydraulic Presses
These presses operate at constant speeds and are load limited, or load restricted. In other words, a press stops if the load required exceeds its capacity. Large amounts of energy can be transmitted to a workpiece by a constant load throughout a stroke, the speed of which can be controlled. Because forging in a hydraulic press takes longer than in other types of forging machines, the workpiece may cool rapidly unless the dies are heated. Compared to mechanical presses, hydraulic presses are slower and involve higher initial cost, but they require less maintenance.
A hydraulic press typically consists of a frame with two or four columns, pistons, cylinders (Fig. 4-12 (a)), rams, and hydraulic pumps driven by electric motors. The main landing-gear support beam for the Boeing 747 aircraft is forged in a 450-MN (50,000-ton) hydraulic press, shown in Fig. 4-12 (c) (with the part in the forefront). This part is made of a titanium alloy and weighs approximately 1350 kg (1.35 tons).
2.    Mechanical Presses
These presses are basically of either the crank or the eccentric type (Fig. 4-12 (b)). The speed varies from a maximum at the center of the stroke to zero at the bottom of the stroke, so they are stroke limited. The energy in a mechanical press is generated by a large flywheel powered by an electric motor. A clutch engages the flywheel to an eccentric shaft. A connecting rod translates the rotary motion into a reciprocating linear motion. A knuckle-joint mechanical press is shown in Fig. 4-12 (c). Because of the linkage design, very high forces can be applied in this type of press (see also Fig. 4-12 (a)).
The force available in a mechanical press depends on the stroke position; it becomes extremely high at the bottom dead center. Thus proper setup is essential to avoid breaking the dies or equipment components. Mechanical presses have high production rates; they are easier to automate and require less operator skill than do other types of forging machines. Press capacities generally range from 2.7 MN (300 tons) to 107 MN (12,000 tons).
Fig. 4-12    Schematic illustration of the principles of various forging machines

(a) Hydraulic press   (b) Mechanical press with an eccentric drive; the eccentric shaft can be replaced by a crankshaft to give the up-and-down motion to the ram   (c) Knuckle-joint press
(d) Screw press   (e) Gravity drop hammer

3.    Screw Presses
These presses (Fig. 4-12 (d)) derive their energy from a flywheel; hence they are energy limited. The forging load is transmitted through a vertical screw, and the ram comes to a stop when the flywheel energy is dissipated. If the dies do not close at the end of the cycle, the operation is repeated until the forging is completed.
Screw presses are used for various open-die and closed-die forging operations; they are particularly suitable for small production quantities and precision parts, such as turbine blades. Capacities range from 1.4 MN to 280 MN (160 tons to 31,500 tons).

Article come from AHEADMOLD,website is WWW.AHEADMOLD.COM.


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